BOTANY classification of tea plants
Tea, which is processed with certain methods of fresh shoots, which are very important in daily life, and most of the body of water as a liquid food and beverages is received. The tea plant seeds of flowering plants off the bottom of the petals of dicotyledonous subclasses of the class of free Parietales team of the family Theaceae Camellia quoted.
It is an evergreen plant. Cultural measures (maintenance, pruning) Failure to apply a tree can take my view. The tea plant is a perennial plant.
Economic efficiency is 50 years of age, the age of 100 years can be. In 1881 a botanist named Ogust Kunntz Camellia sinensis tea at the end of the naming and the name in parentheses (L) (OK) by putting the letters of that name by pointing out that it belongs Linaus and O. Kuntze.
Flowering plants of Section Phanerogama
Old Part of Angiosperms Angiosperms
Dicotyledonous class Dicotyledoneae
Free Subclass leafy crown Choripetales
Theace family of Teas
There are three varieties of Camellia are Sinensi: Camellia Sinensis Var. Sinensis (Chinese Tea), Camellia Sinensis Var. Assamica (Assam Tea), Camellia Sinensis Var. Cembodiensis (Kambod of tea)
Small leaves are dull and stiff.
The amount of caffeine in the composition of substances and Assam tea tannins and less than others.
Dem color, light,
Leaf yield less, is quite resistant to cold.
Leaves large, bright, soft and branches are as grim by.
And caffeine in terms of aromatic compounds in the composition depending on the type rich in China is strong color.
Although leaf yield was more resistant to adverse conditions and is not cold.
Having a life of a centuries-old tea plants in nature is allowed to grow a tree view takes time. Unkempt in appearance and outlook as well as the plant structure, form one body in which there are many body. Evergreen is a plant which is always green. Sahiptir.yeterl summer and winter leaf level where the temperature and humidity places, such as southern India, Sri Lanka, Java, Sumatra and Kenya takes a year-long shoot formation. Season of the year between the temperature and humidity ayrımlılıg is located, for example in the North and North East India North East China and in Japan, South Africa, some cool areas, our neighbor Georgia and Iran's Caspian Sea coast, and our country tea plant shoots intermittently occurs in . Places not suitable for year-round shoot formation, shoot formation in the cold season pauses, does not develop in leaves and buds. In other words, the tea plant during cold periods of rest (dormancy) enters a phase. In the time of the exile to the formation of shoots continuously in tea plants plenty of rain and the temperature should be sufficient. Otherwise, during the plant shoots, shoot does not give the expected development is significantly decreased and hence the amount of the product is significantly reduced.
In tea plants from shoot tips of two leaves freshly plucked a bud, is used in the production of quality tea.
As a general rule for the production of tea plucked from shoot tip is recommended to use two leaves and a bud and desirable. The reason for this in the young leaves of the tea plant from the coast to the elderly is reduced by the amount of polyphenols, substances that have characteristics that affect the quality of the leaves and buds of young leaves is collected.
In general, good quality and successful üründür.ür of tea manufacture in the first condition does not exist, nor does the possibility to gain a quality of manufacture with the raw material for tea is a need to evaluate the manufacturing process as a whole ..
Fresh sliding tea sprouts
A main root and lateral roots to the deep side on the stem near the soil surface rather have hairy roots. Some varieties, such as lateral roots, taproots can go deep into the soil. Feeding the plant root weight is about 5% by weight of the overall radical. 1-2 mm thick stem cells are abundant in starch. Pruning the plants have been stored through these nutrients leads to extension.
With a short stem leaves are always green egg-shaped end that is pointed towards. Mature or less toothed edges of the leaves. According to the different kinds of lengths 3-35 cm in length. In the first phase of development and composed after pruning leaves on shoots becomes bigger. Tea leaf surface is smooth or embossed blunt or sharp tip (beak) in varying shades of yellow from green to dark green color is made. As with the older leaves texture feature gives the feeling of the skin, the surface is glossy and dark green.
Shoots, mature leaves in their seats through the eyes of the wood occurs. Tea-leaves seats located in the upper part of the branches that make up eyes following their exile exile have been surpassed by his eyes. However, to break with the growth of shoots emerging above rule immediately switches to a lower leaf buds growing in the seat. One leaf of the tea plant are seen in different ways on exile. These sheets are designated separately. Growing shoots are named as follows:
Bud (of Flover-pico)
The first sheet (Oranje - Piko)
Second Sheets (Piko)
Third-Fourth Leaf (Sukong)
Fifth -Altınc Leaves (Con)
Fresh tea shoots
Inactive during the winter period
Rest period, the tea shoots
Developing tea shoots
Tea shoots have come to harvest maturity
But to be pruned and the end made progress in quarries in the rule not only shoots a lot of buds on the trunk and branches of activity enables you to move your eyes. In general, shoots plucked at the bottom of each sprout eyes become active pass. In studies with adequate rainfall in the growing season, buds, leaves the seat to access the collection of maturity (2.5-3.5 shoots) shoots in a base within 42 days of the date on which it is torn. The first 28 days of growth is very slow. Growth rate from day 28 until 35.g increasingly is to 45.g from 35.g is maximum. The tip of shoots, more leaves up to fourth and fifth green shoots down parts kahverengidir.çay environment and climate conditions during growth without depending show an obvious rest period. Entering a period of rest at the top of shoots, shoots at the top of the normal ongoing development and plump buds as long as non-5mm in length consists of a bud of the bud is called the rest of this Banjih.
The development of the buds rest period
It is wrapped around with two or three rows leaflet. When it opens at the end of a period of rest firstly on the outer side of this leaf bud opens, then blunt-topped atrium resembling a small leaf that is called Katafil. Occurs more than once. Subsequently, the second outer leaf buds unlike the first opening is formed on a second leaflet of the teeth on the edges of these sheets are not available, leaves Janam-called fish leaf. This leaf-bearing leaves are called on from time to time. Thereafter the normal course of development of the buds starting to form in exile normal leaves.
Climate and maintenance requirements subject to the normal leaf composed of five when in exile rest of the circuit again enters the plant and is composed banji.
In early August our country in their seats short of a fully formed leaf buds begin to appear at the end of the handle. The end of August or beginning of September this bud opens and becomes more elongated stem and showy white flowers are formed. Fully formed in a flower sepals with 5-7 pieces 5-7 pieces include petals. Flower is a worm assembly. Male organs of the body one is five or more sayıdadırlar.diş three-piece creates a table. After the flower petals fall down peaked at the end of the flower stalk always possible to see small fruits. Once in the spring they begin to swell and has a bright green color in September. In October, ripening fruits receive dirty green or red color, is released from the ends cleaved seeds.
New rose flower buds
They are three-eyed and thick-skinned fruits, fruit seeds are in the range of 3-6 units.
Normally supposed to create three seed components in ovarian atrophy seed quantity is reduced as a result.
Sometimes a separate one eye side flat seeds. Immature green fruits are ripe brown hazelnuts after handling fruit size as a normal 12mm in diameter.
Seed is located within the 20-30 wt oil in the oil agent is saponin.
Tea plants do not like cold winds and frost does not like. The temperature drops below zero degrees and 40 degrees, and the annual average temperature rises above falls below 14 degrees where it is not suitable for tea cultivation. Tea desired plant abundant precipitation is in progress is above 1200 mm of rainfall during the slow and continuous process of gerekir.yağış desirable.
Plenty of tea plants for moisture, such as rain freshness and tenderness of önemlidir.ür is needed in order to maintain high humidity. Moisture plays a role in formation of quality as well as promoting the growth etmektedir.yıllık average relative humidity is required to be above 70%.
Tea plants from sand, clay touched with different structures react in the acid (pH 5.5-6) deep in the soil and plants yetişebilir.geçirgenlig good good gelişir.ag soils are rich in nutrients, clayey, impermeable ground water does not develop in high places.
DEVELOPMENT OF OUR COUNTRY TEA
Our tea plantation areas in the country after 1924 plants with seeds brought from Georgia edilmiştir.çay plant in the genetic structure due to external fertilization, with the result that the genotype consists of constantly opening.
In Georgia tea varieties mainly china varieties including China * Indian hybrid (Camellia sinensis * Camellia assamica) whether they own them for many years expansions showing the region compatible varieties of tea have occurred. (Ozbek et al, 1961 Çelebioğlu and Sonmez, 1973 Ayfer and al., 1982 Orphans, 1987) çaylık, China dominates varieties, including morphology, quality, vegetative, generative and ecological traits such as compliance with the conditions found significant differences between them are composed of many types. MAlArdAn ongoing course hybridization with numerous new types çıkmıştır.toh occur if production is continued in this manner it is natural that will produce a new type. This new type of course resulting hybridization majority will have lower values in terms of quality and yield. (Tea Agricultural Development and Reclamation Project, 1976) The tea plant is a perennial plant that lived several centuries have been identified in nature. Tea plants cultured their generally accepted is 100 years. Tea plants 4 from the age of the product. Depending on the circumstances Quantity reaches its highest level after 10 to 15 years. Economic efficiency in the age of the tea plant is generally considered to be 50 years and with edilmiştir.tohu produced from seed sown in 1938 with the establishment of our economic life that was introduced in the tea garden is almost full. This old and yields are falling from the need to renew our tea gardens. (Few, 1987) In general, all the tea gardens in our country genaratif ways that seeds have been established. The tea plant seeds can be produced by methods such vejatatif can be reproduced. Currently, tea is grown in countries most widely used methods steels, dipping, and the vaccine is. Replication by immersion in the number of plants to be produced from the parent plant is very small. Go to the tea plant is pollinated seeds as a physiological plant in the garden and features of different types of tea plantation areas in which they occur is that there is a standard product norms. For example, in a tea garden, tea bushes at different times of the exiles to come to harvest maturity, harvest are many difficulties in terms of the manufacturer. At the same time the latest time in the manufacturer's çaylık expect the stove, then drag items to the collection trends and the quality of the product due to the blind and kartlaş exiles who fled because of a fall is observed. At the same time, which will be applied in the implementation of cultural measures is that the manufacturer has done great difficulties. Modern agriculture has on product standards in terms of quality and quantity is an important phenomenon. Therefore, this case must be targeted at all agricultural products.
To accomplish this goal in tea cultivation tea plantation primarily in the areas you need to catch a homogeneous product norm. For this purpose, the study will be available at the beginning of the tea farms should be made to the rehabilitation of our area. For this purpose, our region ecological conditions that adapted to the yield and quality superior in character and these features invariant of the types selectin, having been in that type will be created breeding gardens, primarily çaylık plantation our sites, economic efficiency has reached the age (50 years and over tea farms) yield and quality declined, çaylık with their renewal and superior in terms of quality and efficiency, as well as a standard product standards will be achieved. With this application will be guaranteed the future of the tea as well as quality can compete freely in world markets will be formed. The quality here is certainly the first requirement of a successful tea manufacture are good products. The product does not exist is not possible to provide a quality of manufacture. Tea together with raw materials is necessary to evaluate the manufacturing process as a whole. (Van, 1985)
To that end, tea in tea research institute of agriculture in the 1967-1971 breeding and development project under the name of the current tea plantation in the area of our field of clonal Seleks and began intensive studies have been continued. Until the end of 1973, 7,517 units in the tea plantation areas were selected types of tea bushes. Total appreciated and 3560 of them were brought to the Institute. Of this type of steel pan, rooting and development of the situation by observing Seleks you are subjected to. As a result, 1,086 types of control plots, leaving others giving good results is eliminated. In later years, 1,086 types the best results from that 64 types by selecting the others attempt çıkartılmıştır.1977 year yield and quality in terms of recent Seleks yo stages of completing the 64 types of the best results from that seven types selectively breeding gardens have been created and these gardens seedling production for the steel used and the Institute's greenhouse and pans were planted to.
These types; Derepazarı-7, Sunday-20 Brick-10-10 Muradian, Gundogdu-3, Coal-1, Fener-3
Leaves are elliptical leaves at the end of a long beak belirsizdir.yaprak Search veins of color light yeşildir.tomurcuk kabarıktır.yaprak markedly and the first leaf is covered with six hairs. Between nodes are longer than others. Is sparse and brittle branches break easily.
Rize Derepazarı well in the village identified the region's altitude 300 m in 1967 rootstock removed from the furnace steels Institute of Tea in the experimental plots to the dikilmiştir.sürdürül the selection results in 1977, this clone superior quality and quantity have decided that it is.
Assamica phenotype resembling the other seven clones of clones, which are the most unstable in the cold and disease. It is the widest leaf area relative to other clones are clones. stance is slightly drooping branches leaves. A harvesting header webpages is weak broad branching occurs.
Exile Diameter 3,26mm 1.Yaprak Area 22,8cm2
Exile Length 22cm 2.Yaprak Area 30,3cm2
Areas 18,2cm2 2,95mm 1.Yaprak
Exile Length 20cm 2.Yaprak Area 22,8cm2 Lantern-3 clone
This clone was found in the neighborhood of Rize-Central Lantern. Referred to the region's altitude is 20 m.
This clone was identified in 1963 after trying for many years with outstanding quality and quantity that has been decided. Sinensis is a hybrid of features is dominant.
In particular, creating a powerful stove structure is more resistant to natural conditions.
Search veins of dark green leaves and is fluffy appearance.
Stance by the branches of leaves is slightly upturned. Succulent shoots, crispy, and is mainly done.
Buds and first leaves are covered with six hairs.
Rize-Brick-Tarik identified in the village and the area referred to is the height of 300 m.
From January rootstocks taken in 1967 were planted in experimental plots in steels Tea Institute.
Continuing in 1977 as a result of selection feature, have decided that there is a clone.
Strong structure and a burner plate has a large harvest
According to long elliptical leaves and branches are upright stance.
Generally, the formation of thin branches and the roof is good.
Gate structure is good.
2,92mm 1.Yaprak Areas
21,5cm 2 Leaf Area
2,92mm 1.Yaprak Areas
19 cm-3 clone 2.Yaprak Area 19,7cm2 Gundogdu
Rize-Gundogdu-are scattered village is found in the neighborhood of medium height is 150m.
Rootstocks from the furnace steel tea institute in 1967 to the experimental plots were planted.
Continuing clone selection as a result of not having that feature, it has been decided.
Jan. creation and development of iyidir.yaprak elliptical shape is wide stance diktir.yaprak by branch bright appearance is soft.
Rize-Sunday-Soğuksu is 140m elevation in the neighborhood has been identified.
Rootstocks taken from the quarry in 1967, the experimental plots were transferred to the Institute of Tea steels.
Continuing in 1977 as a result of selection feature, have decided that there is a clone.
Leaves are elongated V-shaped medium is bent along the vessel.
Formation of thin branches and the roof is good.
3,01mm 1.Yaprak Areas
Exile Length 20cm 2 Leaf Area
Rize-Central-Coal is found in the village is 270 m elevation.
From maternal hearth steel in 1968 at the Institute of Tea was planted in experimental plots.
Continuing in 1979 as a result of selection feature, have decided that there is a clone.
Leaves are elliptical leaf edges marked short stature is threaded.
Stance is raised up by the branches of leaves.
This clone is relatively resistant to cold.
Rize-Salahr A-Muradian has been found in the village. The region's height is 300m.
In 1968 rootstocks taken from the quarries to the experimental plots were planted in steels Tea Institute.
Continuing in 1977 as a result of selection feature, have decided that there is a clone.
Precocity recognized by these clones compared to others means 10-15 days before harvest maturity.
Leaf blade is small, the tendency is more towards the blind.
Between nodes is short of shoots branching ability is good.
Exile Diameter 2,76mm 1.Yaprak Area 13,9cm2
Exile Length 20cm 2.Yaprak Area 19,5cm2
Mentioned above yield and quality of clones per hectare generally differ from each other, although all clones were found to have good properties.
The yield per hectare of the Clones 1200-1400kg / min. ranges. Rize tea production areas on an annual average 721kg / min, in the province of Artvin 497.4kg / min Giresun and Ordu provinces 642.2kg / min, while the average in Turkey 647kg / min respectively. (Ananda, 1987b, orphans, 1987)
Rates that affect the quality of the polyphenols is 22civar%. Other tea farms in general does not exceed 17%. These seven types selected in the breeding nursery garden of our institute was established as Central and Charity.
Clone Name Central
Derepazarı-7 550 1094 1644
Sunday 20 173 1460 1633
Brick-10 312 1177 1489
Muradiye-10 1263 662 1925
Lantern-3 189 2118 2307
TOTAL 3087 6511 9598 Coal in terms of total area as indicated in Table-1 and Gundogdu-3 does not have a sufficient potential breeding garden. While the remaining clones Tea agricultural development and a satisfactory level of improvement has not occurred in the project. With the current situation in our Institute to be used for breeding garden total number of january 9000 pieces. Tea cultivation in the rehabilitation and renovation projects evaluated as a potential, we present our garden every year for breeding is not possible to take cuttings. Because the vaccine in the eyes scion scion will be good for the stove to mature in March that year yield pruning should be done after the second half of July and maturing eye cuttings should be taken from the vaccine.
To be used as breeding stock each year due to IL-stove efficiency of the pruning techniques can not be made at least 3 years of pruning and care must be taken to be made.
According to these criteria the current breeding clones annual scion production Tea Steel and Immunisation item to be clones of operations to be performed: -as the item will be clone in March pruning done scion of a strong output should be provided. -July Enough after the second half of the month (70-90) cm large and mature enough to be selected item.
Items should be continued under the couch.
So without further delay pens -as underarm eyes, without the formation of flower buds should be taken.
-Klon Cuttings taken from cut stems of the leaves were washed with tap water, with systemic fungicides captan should be disinfected.
-Sampling Without delay vaccination if the items should be used immediately. If done right 5CON 'should be stored in polyethylene bags.
In March Trimmed Tea Clone
Tea maturing in July Items
Available from clonal tea cuttings a year, the amount will be
Total tea clone 1/3 9000 pcs / 3 = 3000 clones
2 obtainable from one clone cuttings number tea 10-20
* A clone of the Clones pruned in the January issue of the amount of vaccine per item: 3000 * 17 = 51000 scion
3 B r of tea clones can give out the minimum number of vaccines
* Number of cuttings in a clone of a number of items in the vaccine chamber: 17 * 6 = 90 eyes vaccine
4 Pruning tea clones in 3000 with a total consideration amount of vaccine
* Total pruned clones in a clone look-out: 3000 * 90 = 270 000 vaccine eyes / year
As a result, the annual 200 - 250 thousand seedlings grafted between the generating capacity is available.
In our country, all existing hybrid tea from the seeds of the tea gardens has occurred. Which consists of a hybrid tea seed as a result of genetic expansions, tea plantation in the fields with millions of different genotype and phenotype characteristics, and feature different types of tea bushes were formed. Such resulting in the overall distribution reflects the traits good qualifications are not in (poor quality, unproductive), tea bushes near the well with characteristics (efficiency, quality, cold, drought, disease-resistant vegetation period is longer) tea bushes in place were taking.
Our region's ecological conditions, different character and a winning types of tea from the best feature that moves the features unchanging permanent one type of which properties carried by determining (efficient, high-quality, cold-resistant, drought-tolerant, disease resistant, vegetation period length) of each genetic characteristics have been determined after the existing tea plantation areas in our properties unknowable and often of poor quality tea bushes consisting of types of properties, rather than determined tea clones tea plantation our sites to take place in the future of Turkish tEA INDUSTRY economy in the region in terms of importance will have.
For this purpose, the production of tea seedlings in general:
1 Generative production (seeds)
2 Vegetative propagation (rolling, dipping, vaccination, tissue culture) shape.
1-generative production (seeds)
Primarily in the production of seeds of success and superior seed is ripe seeds collected after bağlıdır.olgunlaş 1.5 cm. wide having perforations through sieves geçirilir.eleg above the remaining seeds sampled and in hemisperical extracted and the remaining filler coarse seeds for planting water filled in the container for 24-48 hours is suspended, then the water remaining on the seeds is discarded, the remaining seeds for sowing used. tea seeds will germinate in 25-30 days 20-25 C0.
As tea with physiological structures germinating seedlings are present pollinated seed from the different type and quality of the resulting seedlings occurred and have not been formed mainly of the type desired shape is preferably a replication
Tea seed seedling production
Today's modern agriculture is an important phenomenon in the product standard. The main objective in production and exports in the same way and standarttır.kalit product quality and quantity of a product, which vary in terms of marketing, especially in foreign markets, there is no chance.
2-vegetative production (steel, dipping, vaccination, Tissue Culture)
Today's modern agriculture products of the characteristics of knowing making production both in terms of quality as well as product marketing suffer a major key event aims modern tea cultivation, the selection through the regional ecology adapt to and these features are lasting, high quality, with values (thick leaves and collecting table is high, branching capabilities and more, flowering phenomenon is low, blinded less and between nodes is longer), this hybrid tea types of propagation of vegetative mode of production is an important yöntemdir.Bir production method produced with quality tea seedlings adaptation trials after the region's economic output fell off, poor quality tea bushes regeneration will be appropriate.
In the replication process of the tea plant vejatatif çeliklen so far is made by way of seedling production. Nowadays, with the development of propagation techniques and tissue culture production with particular vaccination has come to the fore.
Steels replication: Steels clones selected for replication in March, a deep pruning is applied. Pruned cooker hob is left with the free growth of the shoots that develop product certainly will not be collected, taken July and first week of August until the steel will have reached maturity.
In general, until today the vegetative production at the beginning of steel replica uygulanmıştır.ancak this production shape obtained by the tea seedlings which are desirable in a strong root structure and the distribution does not occur, especially seedlings initial planting stage, the first crop is taken in the period up negative environmental factors, against drought, cold, weeds are more sensitive.
This situation limits the ability of steels produced adaptation of tea seedlings and yield of the desired sleep time is desirable and development is weak. Therefore, the healthy development of our region does not show in different areas.
The ripened tea pen
Obtaining steel tea
Tea planting on rooting medium steel
Vaccine production techniques in general as well as in the replication of all agricultural products as the healthiest mode of production emerges.
Taking the chip from tea seedlings
Chip removed tea seedlings
Pen removed from the eye of chip insertion
Look vaccine to connect with
Chip budding shoots -1
Bud grafting shoot-2
The basis for production of vaccine consisting of tea seed seedling poses. A natural rooting result of a strong root structure-winning tea seedlings, current superior quality clones, Vaccination obtained by these saplings, quality and quantity are high in natural conditions strength (drought, cold, weed, disease, etc.) and other vegetative according to production (steel, dip, texture, ash, etc.) adaptation capacity he will be extremely high.
Tea with the replication of the vaccine is a promising method of production. However, especially in the spring during tea physiological structure as of the sap flow is very light because the pen out and shell because it does not T budding implementation of the desired efficiency of the failure to obtain such vaccines method of implementation is limited. Therefore, bud grafting is applied more successful in this period.
If stagnant in budding (July-August) Both T vaccine, both vaccines Yongala is easily applied. For this purpose, particularly in the areas of tea plantation in our region, economic efficiency over the age of efficiency, decreased quality of tea bushes are required to be renewed within a period of time.
Tissue Culture Methods
Tissue culture production of the series compared to other production techniques is a form of reproduction. Also obtainable from a plant which produces a maximum of replication is a form of seedlings.Ancak doku kültürü çoğaltışında özel steril laboratuar ortamı ve deneyimli yetişmiş elemanlara ihtiyaç olmasıdır.Çay Plantasyon Sahalarımızın Durumu
Bölgemizdeki çay plantasyon sahalarını dikim tarihleri itibarı ile Çay Tarım Dairesi Başkanlığından almış olduğumuz verilere göre, çaylık alanlarımız özellikle 1960 yılına kadar olan dikim tarihleri itibarı ile en yaşlı bölgemizden en genç bölgemize doğru sıralama yapılacak olursa, Ekonomik verim yaşını doldurmuş çaylıklar sırası ile:
6. bölge % 42
4. bölge %34
3. bölge %29
5. bölge %18
1. bölge % 17
2. bölge % 7
Bölgeler arasında önemli farkların ortaya çıktığını görmüş oluruz, hatta bölgeyi oluşturan fabrikalar arasında bile önemli farklılıkların olduğu göze çarpmaktadır.
Sonuç olarak ekonomik verim yaşınıdoldurmuş çaylıklarımızın yenilenmesinde, bölgeler arası farklılık gözetilerek işin önemine ve acili yetine değer verilerek başlanması hem ülkemiz çaycılığı hem de bölgemiz acısından hayati bir önem arz etmektedir.