AGRİCULTURE İN THE OTTOMAN EMPİRE TEA
Tea Culture and Literature
Tea, beach stone covering the whole land until the tops of mountains is a green carpet. Sprinkle it on the hood of our people serilmişce sere made to their homes intervals. As required by the nature of geography, both as a result of the appreciation of tea every inch of land in the village where what was going on in the Black Sea, which started in the county where one can not predict that. Our people dressing land this "green gold" has been set according to your life. Inch by inch on all sides have made merry, has been kept alive, yards and yards of desolation and the increasing isolation of these areas have been missed. Tea has experienced the return of foreign lands for the first time. Mürüvvet has seen him, happiness is experienced. "Property" has learned the word. Thanks to the tea itself has recognized all over the world. Now his story, myth, literature, folk songs, the epic, it was time to write poetry. But it did not. Thank God for all the blessings that are not lost in the last 20 years, the value of the tea as well as a state and as a nation we do not know well. I do not like to be satisfied before we have to find ways to get rid of him.
Culture, the foremost requirement for sustaining the existence of the nation and is the property. Literature, art, tales, legends, folklore, customs and traditions that are the sine qua non. If our mothers, our grandmothers told our baby lullaby is not our own, in our own language to tell the epic tale, the story does not find a common past, they do not share the pain and joy is something happened to us.
The role and importance of the Black Sea anchovy people is indisputable. Imaginable about him all kinds of cultural, literary, social and economic motives were produced. This continued throughout the ages unnamed long and arduous education has been formed as a result. Cups for tea, there are many things in this regard. But unfortunately we're not the same thing to the tea plantations.
Tea collecting folk songs has been said, is rested or were fired. But tea is sung song, poetry is not written yet. Our motives, our designs, our handcrafted, our clothes, our writing, our mascot, our books, our poetry, in short, has not found the desired shape our culture, tea. Japanese and their customs and traditions and cultures that are the most important symbol of chastity and honor "geisha" s pictures have made the tea gathering. The most important values they want to show the most important side brought tea. More precisely tea "into the harem" have received. Prime Minister tea gathering with a photo taken of our national arts star in their tea gardens unfortunately no images. We've always got bored and embarrassed than we collect tea. We have always avoided him throw up our hands for some reason. Her "to yevmiyeci," "foreigners" or "sharecroppers" to have recall. We have put together to take our hand shears.
Japanese Tea Gathering
Japan, China, Malaysia, countries like Senegal tea plant tea gardens we only observe. There are no other plants. This is not required. In fact, the Japanese are very poor in terms of land and agricultural land in this narrow and limited their choice of tea is wondered why. Fruit, vegetables and other agricultural products, rather than having a drink of tea cultivation is important. Even in China, tea ceremonies and beliefs about the shape of the "permissible," he even has a religion. Coffee and drinks are not an ordinary plant. We even planting this plant only "for alder" we've cut, prickly lands also "sets" like we shot. Into the tea garden, it's like there's no tea, apple, pear, cherry laurel, beech, chestnut and plum trees planted. Corn, beans, kale planted. We could not get inside her as a kind, friendly. Yet the world's sixth largest tea producer and fifth largest consumer of tea are a society. There is every moment of our lives, this tea "blessing". We do not pay sufficient attention. However, expansions and innovations can not do much about.
For example, more than 40 years after the realization of tea cultivation in our country, but we do tea bags, 50 years later, we were able to produce green tea! If we look at how the tea growers in the state have looked the same evil eye. More, we do not know what cold tea. Fruit tea or tea flavor is something I did not see how. Products were unable to provide sufficient variety.
Agricultural Engineering and concern about tea and techniques for agriculture in many books, articles and publications are available and sufficient number of scientific studies have been made. Besides tea culture and literature on the one or two, "written so that it is written" tea and tea treatise on the shelves of bookstores or libraries in our books have. However, these "absent" in our culture to avoid barely been able to supply figuring struggling. But a full-fledged tea calendar, tea folk, tea nice, Cayce twenty-four hours, Cayce of tea on the thoughts and stories, lavishly illustrated tea albums, (technical and agricultural non-) tea and çaycılık upon written a good tea books and tea festival tea journal, Cayce associations, fan clubs, etc. There is nothing at all. Similar writings, moreover, similar to the use of the images on the left and right of the same thing (even with his faults) other than wander around each other sequentially, there is nothing in the realm of literature and culture of tea. Even those folks who bandits song "bread" did not write a few lines? One or two "name" did not murmur? However, over the Anatolia grown and produced all kinds of fruits, vegetables or other means of livelihood has sung songs for agricultural products.
Hand-made in Japan with the machine and tea cultivation
Tea attracts the persecution of the literature do not expect to do. We believe that the new generation do it. In our culture, our literature, our art and our folklore needed replaced after tea, then you really will be two and a half sheets.
The Adventure of Tea and Coffee in Ottoman Documents
Tea tree in Turkey is about time are more than 100 years. Agriculture and farming spread in our country as equivalent to the late 1930s adventure even if it is locally produced crops are grown on our soil as we can say a century. Were previously imported from abroad.
Brewed tea with tea plants brought from outside, namely a cup of tea in the "tea" culture has been established. This kind of need both Ottoman and new works are penned letters. But with regard to tea cultivation in the Ottoman Empire penned something is not. Even the tea garden and stage works describing the state has not been written. We made an addition to tea history in our country, but he would like to contribute to the formation of culture and literature.
Works about the history of tea and were very nice lately. Zihnioğlu Asim's "In Pursuit of a Green" çaycılık in Turkey with his work, perhaps the first literary work won. This work at home which all have tea and reading is necessary. Love in the degree of adventure with a love of tea you can read in this work. Mustafa Tea Book smoke in this direction is a beautiful work of compilation consisting of. Other technical books can be obtained from Çaykur portfolio. More scientific ones are available from the HEC. Here, a documentary on the historical journey of tea in Turkey in the sense we want to add new information only in the Ottoman Archives will provide some information regarding the document.
According to the documents we have reached, tea, crops grown in our country, and received from him, ie, a plant cultivated in the year 1894 has to be considered. So II. Abdul Hamid timely topics discussed are among many new tea to be brought into the territory of the Turks incident.
In 1889 he was sent to Japan and on the way back to before the Ertugrul Frigate sunk in a period coinciding with tea seed imported from Japan in Bursa, the first attempt was made tea.
Boiled tea leaves as soon as possible to be exploited by infusion and
Blueberry plants, also called the name of likap
First Tea: Likap A (Bilberry)
The document referred to in our tea and examples of the term has passed, we encounter interesting. In a document dated 1879 by the Ottomans, yet today is not the cultivation of tea plants at a later date, in Rize in the forests, meadows and gardens abundant in some of the public discovered a kind of tea tree is mentioned. According to this document the local people of this plant, labor and maple leaves striving whether weight training is selling at ten mecidiye. Then taken by the government of customs duties similar to those of tea from the plant, as well as forestry tax is required to be taken. The Russian Government does not take anything from this plant on behalf of tax leakage of tea as it will go abroad, there is a concern. Governor of Trabzon on the writing samples from the Ottoman government wants this plant. Ministry of Forestry in the control condition to be explored whether it is useful then to be made and dissemination of agriculture has been advisable to attempt.
To be similar to tea in Rize, public drinking and preparing tea is sold, the name "likap," ie, Bilberry, Blueberry, also called Trabzon Tea or document mentioned plants. (BOA.İ.ŞD. 46/2515)
For us, it's time "tea tree resembling a plant is described as" this tea, local people likap to, kaskanak to, Ancere, Cera, maheyov to, meheğop, tea, grape, blueberry and Trabzon tea with different names like familiar plant. English is known as blueberry blueberries, health is recognized as a fruit. Today, in many countries, particularly Canada and the United States to have a very important position. Cancer, diabetes and other diseases are known to be good. However, this so-called tea plants in the document, in the sense that we know today is not tea.
Other terms mentioned in Ottoman documents about tea the tea shop, tea sellers, import of tea, tea-houses, tea sets are referred to as.
Year 1894: The first tea cultivation in the Ottoman Empire
From the millions of documents in the Ottoman Archives, constituting a few of them can be accessed on tea, which is the first Archive Document "II. Abdülhamit from sample farms tea plant cultivation and agriculture in order to commence infrastructure works to initiate orders "the same command line studies in the result of which forms and reports, as the sultan's information Forests, Mines and Agriculture by the Minister requested that the first Ottoman" Tea DESCRIPTION "this article the subject of poses.
In fact, the oldest Ottoman documents, Forestry, Mining and Agriculture Minister Selim Pasha ministry's budget and income and expenses on the state wide information given text as a supplement to the palace to offer and within, "sultans of our orders in accordance with the Bursa two baskets Deru in the imported tea seedlings be presented to the palace, and that they should furnish the immediate erection "is a document dated 13.05.1894 which shall be added. However, before that date, from this article agreed that there was not able to reach the sultan commanded. At the highest level, and history of tea cultivation in a cruise methodological and chronological us about the first and the wide range of information that document the following documents bearing the date that is after 4.5 months. However, the occurrence of this document the term tea cultivation is the oldest document feature now keeps. At a later time to reach the earlier and more documents and hope to share them.
II. Abdul Hamid Forestry, Mining and Agriculture Minister Selim Pasha, with his signature, dated 10.06.1894 and numbered 250, and the Grand Vizier, ie, Grand Vizier, today literally following in his writings to the Prime Minister is talking about:
Tea for cultivating Forest, Mines and Agriculture Minister in writing to the Grand Vizier (BOA. IOM. 2/1312-2)
"Tea is wholesome and nutritious"
"It's real, and poor vassal supply is that,
The tea plant, which is nourishing and healing properties in the trade market has a substantial position. Therefore, the cultivation and agriculture in the Ottoman Empire to the attempted dissemination of matter depends on the command of the sultan.
Located in various parts of our country in the sample farms and fields acres in a previously prepared on a trial basis in Japan for planting and cultivating seeds and seedlings were ordered in sufficient numbers.
Trabzon (eastern Black Sea Samsun up to Artvin area), Marash, Izmit and Bursa reports that grows spontaneously in the vicinity of a given type, there are tea plants. Enough of the seedlings that samples taken from sample will be planted on farms and plantations.
Ring in the same way bearing trees in the School of Agriculture, will be brought to the nursery. To do this, Trabzon, Maras, Izmit and Bursa to bring the fruit bearing trees and tea seedlings which have special knowledge in these matters Kiziltoprak American Suspended Contractors Nursery has been decided to send Monsieur Ekriln.
Maras and both should Trabzon and will be brought from Izmit and Bursa Monsieur Ekriln seedlings with only the costs of shipping costs have to be met. The tea seedlings and seeds from Japan, how much of the fee is not possible to predict at this time. An estimated five thousand bucks for them on the Ziraat Bank for Agricultural Affairs from the budget of the year 1894 offsetting and "Useful Plants Production and Dissemination of Agricultural Appropriation" is the sake of inclusion. This money is taken from the Agricultural Bank cents from 150 thousand to meet, in the words of Agricultural Science Affairs office and has been presented to. Our sultans, Esq orders and decrees as these. "
Grand Vizier at the same time that the prime minister and II. Abdul Hamid's aide who Cevat Pasha Selim Pasha himself to exhibit these issues immediately to the palace, the sultan was the message. Cevat Pasha, the Ottoman territory for the cultivation of tea cultivation decrees and orders of the sultan wants dated 10.19.1894 and numbered 1099 article:
Tea cultivation that is given to the will of the sultan decree. (BOA. IOM. 2/1312-2A
"I need the dissemination of tea agriculture"
"State of My Holiness Sir Sultan,
In Ottoman lands for the cultivation and dissemination of agriculture needed to Command of the tea plant, the sample farms and plantations on a trial basis in Japan to produce a sufficient number of seeds and seedlings were ordered. Trabzon, Maras, Izmit and Bursa reported that grows spontaneously in the vicinity of a type of tea seedlings so that the iCab will be planted on the same farm and field. Cyclic unfruitful tree nursery in the School of Agriculture will be generated. Trabzon, Marash, located in Izmit and Bursa and tea tree seedlings to bring that kind of specific information relating to this matter Kiziltoprak America Ekriln be sent Monsieur Suspended Contractors Nursery will be accurate. Monsieur Ekriln removal and transport of seedlings around here will deal with things. Of the costs to be met and Japan next seedlings and seeds of the price paid for the Agricultural Affairs for the Agricultural Bank in 1894 to the year offset for payment Forestry, Mining and Agriculture Department's permit requests and issues for the realization of the decree dictate your father this article on your office and your post sir . "
Cevat Pasha, Grand Vizier asked for tea cultivation is given the edict II. Abdul Hamid's First Secretary, Private Secretary dated 21.10.1894 from Mr. Suresh understand. This article will of the ruler at the same time, which means commandment. In the Ottoman bureaucracy recently, the Ministry of the organization was established as a time after the sultans' decrees or orders, orders requested topics where the Grand Vizier, writing under the Sultan's First Secretary by the Fall, "pursuant deeds to be OK" also came to mean a bureaucratic language expression began. The supply of "suitable" check product has been added and purpose. Such documents provided to the diplomatic equivalent attributed to Sultan "will" is expressed by name.
Tea-related developments are underway. However, before these plants are grown, which is what part of the world where they grow in, how it is done, and indeed in the Ottoman lands of agricultural upbringing must be disclosed whether or not the benefits. States will not allow at the top of the pop-up tea cultivation by way of the following documents in the Ottoman Archives is the first specification. However, before this specification Forestry, Mining and Agriculture Minister of the sultan as a top writing this article there are presented, as well as on tea cultivation with corn farming also gives us clues about. II. In an article dated 4.23.1895 information submitted to Abdul Hamid Pasha Selim transfer case is as follows.
Tea and quite a bit of preliminary information for the cultivation of corn and tea were offered to the palace along with a description of Forestry Mining and Agriculture Minister Selim Pasha's article. (BOE. Y.PRK.OMZ.1 / 84)
"Egypt's kept as seed tea"
"Compassionate, sir nibs,
Movement of your halifel thanks from sample (sample) farm and in the fields on a trial basis by planting to be trained in Japan brought to Istanbul from some of the previous day office and to be offered tea seed how planted and how training on how penned specification attached presentation is made. Penned a book about tea cultivation is also printed shall be distributed. This book is an ideal introduction to the se-i-ali is edilecet.
The oldest document where the word Tea tea. And both need to be ordered from Japan, imported from Bursa tea tree presented to the court stating that the supply of Pasha Selim article. (BOE. Y.PRK.OMZ. 1/62)
In addition, the fifty days of a small grain of corn that is grown from the seed I want to mention. The sample amount of corn grown on farms that have once you have presented. This should seed so beautiful coast and both are grown in high places. It is also quite resistant to cold. More than cane uzamayıp is not affected by wind chill. In addition, the animals are eating it. Planted last year were grown seed samples sent to Trabzon. Extremely positive opinion by the Governor on this issue have been reported. Of corn grains by oral human will be a food properties. Cane also be fed to animals of the corn seed dissemination of agricultural activities should be initiated in Trabzon. This issue orders and decrees in all matters and UmUzUndUr sultans. "
And the oldest tea cultivation in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman penned regarding the report entitled Tea Specification. (BOA. Y.PRK.OMZ.1 / 84)
The oldest Tea Report
Pamphlets and books have been written about tea. However, they are not grown yet in Ottoman lands, mostly through imports entering Turkey imported from the Far East countries and Iran are talking about tea. More precisely in coffee, tea, quarries, albeit slowly able to enter new and new homes is about drinking tea. In Ottoman lands to be cultivated as a crop plant and the crop to be taken to have been addressed. Agriculture and permits related to the administration of high-level initiatives and undertakings made in the rows above that we saw. After about a year of this attempt at a time corresponding to the penned and presented to Sultan Selim Pasha's top article owned by the oldest Ottoman ulaşılabilen- Strangely Tea Report read:
About cultivation of tea seedlings specification AmAdIr
"Japan and China is the homeland of tea. 23rd to 45th in the range of latitudes are grown in temperate climates. So not hot like the sun too hard and cold as the non-profits are not affected. So many beautiful camellia tree grows in places where it grows.
Tea, on the plains, in the southern and east-facing mountain ridge grows. And in China, the yield of the 3/4 on the mountainous terrain is obtained. Tea is grown in the fields around here separately. In Japan, with cultivated fields, and rivers such as the edge of the fence are planted.
Tea in the mild and moderate clay, efficient and cool terrain is preferred. Never naughty too damp and cool soils. Tea seed or steel and are replicated.
Seed sowing: After preparing the soil thoroughly to a depth of 30 cm and width are planted in pits. This pit of 1.5 m from the other by propaganda. the lines should be spaced so on and so spaced holes should be opened from the other by propaganda.
6 through 10 to each well and finely ground mixed fertilizer thumbnail discarding unit is discarded. Tea is one of power storage units that one or two of seedlings can be grown in each well and allowed them together.
I need to clear the land as permanent first year should refrain from watering kept wet.
(Steel production): Some time ekilme seeds directly into the fields and other trees as well prepared and fertilized soils are planted in the nursery pillows. Seedlings maintained continuously from the invasion of weeds shall be sure. If, however, at the time of extracting the grass to avoid damage to young seedlings to need to act with the utmost attention and care.
Seedlings grown in nurseries in this way is transported to the fields and planted the seed to be sown to wait for the second year will be followed, this time shall existent seedlings 0.26 meters altitude. In this aspect of the two or three seedlings are planted together in a pit.
Seed sowing time is from February until the end of April.
The leaves of seedlings are collected twice a year, starting from the fourth year.
Tea of the most gentle and most difficult process is the preparation of the leaves and roasting. Tea crop is roasted with fire. And are prepared by a number of processes, the method of performing this will be described in the treatise tea to be published.
Tea tree can be grown in many parts of the Ottoman Empire. Our province is appropriate to the nature of tea, Erzurum, Sivas, Ankara, Bursa, Aydın, Adana, Aleppo, Syria, the Istanbul province are around. For the cultivation of this plant will be carried out here.
Tea tree as an ornamental plant in Europe alone are additional. And in times of severe winter so soft yet the shoots of young seedlings from frost if thatch for housing conservatory them easy to transplant or pot inside the crate be better if they are kept. "
Tea rightful wish to resurrect the old location.
Source: Muhammet Safi
Ottoman Archives Specialist